This is immanence. Whereas religion operates as the lower level of representations (Vorstellungen), philosophy thinks at the level of concepts (Begriffe). For religion is an ‘imperfect’, ‘incomplete’, ‘defective’, ‘not spiritual’, ‘not yet perfected’ form of knowledge (1977, 462–3, 472, 477). Oxford: Clarendon Press.Find this resource: Hegel, G. W. F. 1977. There are several reasons why I have chosen the above- Or alternately, the concepts of transcendence and immanence lose their differentiating boundaries at the culmination of the journey of descent. Kierkegaard postulates, reasonably enough, that he does not live in a society in which child sacrifice is practised and accepted. 1958. The common people will doubtless stick with traditional understandings, but the intellectual elite, who operate at the highest level of human understanding (the top of some version of Plato’s divided line) will possess the real truth of the matter. That is what Kierkegaard means when he says that the biblical God is always the ‘middle term’ between myself and my neighbour (1995, 58, 67, 77, 107, 119–21, 142). For the Greeks, it is this impersonal necessity that distinguishes fate or destiny from the gods. Three Dimensions of Immanence and Transcendence. 32, Cor. We must embrace him in both his transcendence and his immanence. Early Theological Writings. To the intellectuals who think they have come up with a new and improved version of Christianity, he says, in effect, ‘No. But even the highest form of religion is vassal to philosophy as its lord. This paper questions the post-Nietzschean, materialist assumption that divine transcendence is necessarily inimical to life. These present the views of scholars from a wide range of disciplines, on the topic of Transcendence and Immanence in Science and Religion. This accounts for the dramatic change in tone that occurs between Hegel’s early and mature philosophy of religion. This does not mean that it is impossible to distinguish ‘God’ from the world. How thankful I am, not only to see these features revealed in Scripture but to have experienced, consciously, both of them. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Find this resource: Otto, Rudolf. Transcendence & Immanence The academic year 2016-2017 in the KHK is dedicated to the destinction between transcendece and immanence. Lanham, MD: University Press of America.Find this resource: Eliade, Mircea. To listen now, click on the play button in the player above. The concept of transcendence also signifies radical, qualitative alterity, not mere ‘spatial’ separateness and numerical difference. 1983). Translated by Samuel Shirley. By contrast, scientific and mathematical discoveries are made at particular times by particular people, but this knowledge does not depend on their authority. In primitive terms, immanence means His closeness to us, and transcendence His distance from us. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.Find this resource: Evans, C. Stephen. Of course they did not initiate the conversation to which they are major contributors, nor did they bring it to a conclusion. PRINTED FROM OXFORD HANDBOOKS ONLINE (www.oxfordhandbooks.com). Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.Find this resource: Jacobi, Friedrich Heinrich. The Epistle to the Romans. We can call this a humanistic pantheism. But Hegel is no foundationalist, and the truth that appears at the beginning is not adequate until it has been fully developed. Translated by T. F. Geraets et al. (p. 116) transcendence and divine immanence, from the Evangelical point of view. Scripture attests to this in various ways. They found it to be a happy alternative to theistic personalism, and both found themselves drawn by Fichte back towards Spinoza, for whom the ground of finite selves was not itself a self. Following Kant, he distinguishes Understanding (Verstand) from Reason (Vernunft) as human thought equipped to deal only with the finite and conditioned on the one hand (the world of the Cave) or aspiring to deal with the infinite and unconditioned on the other (the light of the Sun outside the Cave). Anything less will do grave injustice to the biblical witness. A teleological suspension is what Hegel calls an Aufhebung: something that takes itself or is taken to be self-standing and self-sufficient is demoted to part of a larger whole of which it is not the organizing principle or hegemonic criterion. Today we would probably say secular rather than pagan. As Emil Brunner explains: ‘Transcendence of essence means that God is God alone, and that his “Godhood” is absolutely and irrevocably different from all other forms of being’. But Abraham has no such social/cultural justification. God’s transcendence is … By philosophy. The gap between God and human beings is narrowed and even blurred, and the enterprises fanned by human ideologies and ambition are often confused with the divine purpose. Divine transcendence and the mystery of salvation according to Thomas Aquinas. Hegel serves as the model of immanence within the nineteenth century. Finally, the particularity of the Incarnation, religiously understood, entails a double temporal beyond (Jenseits). This ‘beyond’ can also signify outside rather than inside in the sense of being irreducible to some dimension of human psychology or sociology. A God who is purely transcendental cannot interact with immanent beings, confined by the limitations of time and space. Immanence is usually applied in monotheistic, pantheistic, pandeistic, or panentheistic faiths to suggest that the spiritual world permeates the mundane. Deism so emphasises divine transcendence that the god it creates is for the most part an absentee deity, aloof to the affairs of the world. It is related to issues such as omnipotence and omniscience, but not all faiths consider the divine to be an 'actor' or a 'knower'.. Christianity . TRANSCENDENCE AND IMMANENCE CHIN-TAI KIM I Judaeo-Christian theology represents God as transcendent while Spinoza's metaphysics by contrast represents God as immanent. The first is the philosophical psychology that develops the ‘I’, Spirit in its individual mode. Both what we can know by reason (immanence) and what we can know only by revelation (transcendence) are reflections of the very being of God. Evangelical theology has had some rough road it had to stay balance accordingly to, the divine transcendence and divine immanence of its biblical truth. Immanence in religion Edit. It was belief in the utter transcendence of God that marked out the Israelites from the ancient world, leading them not only to reject all forms of idolatry but also the reverencing of all earthly sovereigns as divine, even at great political and social cost. The Main Philosophical Writings and the Novel Allwell. Only the society in which the historical process comes to the goal appointed by Reason in the world is fully divine, and this occurs only when it adequately understands itself in the philosophy that brings its own history to fulfilment. But eventually it is the authority of some divine revelation, often in the form of some Scripture, that is challenged, and this in two ways. Fear and Trembling, probably Kierkegaard’s most read and discussed book, has three ‘problems’ at its heart. So Jaeschke can say that ‘eschatology is regarded [by Hegel] as the prime example of the failure of religion’ (1990, 185). If, ontologically speaking, the highest reality is the human spirit in its awareness of itself, then human reason will be the highest criterion of truth; and if, epistemically speaking, philosophy is the highest form of human reason, then philosophy will be the highest criterion of truth; and if Hegel’s philosophy is the ultimate system of philosophy, not because Hegel is smarter than everyone who came before, but because by standing on their shoulders he is able to bring philosophy to its telos or completion, then his system will be the Truth that renders all other beliefs partial and penultimate truths at best (1977, Preface). In the final analysis, being is not merely nature but history, not merely necessity but freedom. This is contrasted with immanence, where a god is said to be fully present in the physical world and thus accessible to creatures in various ways. Reason in Religion: The Foundations of Hegel’s Philosophy of Religion. Thus Lessing’s Spinozism, as recalled by Jacobi, expresses itself this way: ‘The orthodox concepts of the Divinity are no longer for me; I cannot stomach them. For each historically particular We is transcended by subsequent worlds of spirit. By contrast, neighbour love cannot select; it includes the unattractive, even the enemy. In H. ‘Paganism in Christendom: On Kierkegaard’s Critique of Religion’. The idea that transcendence and immanence are two sides of the same coin has a long history in Kabbalistic literature. Immanence affirms, while transcendence denies that God is contained within the world, and thus within the limits of human reason, or within the norms and resources of human society and culture. Descriptions of divine immanence can be seen in Nigleh, from the Bible to Rabbinic Judaism. Pages 101-115. (p. 113) 7C) and ‘the consummate [vollendete] religion’ (1988, Part III). The word is derived from Latin in-manere , meaning to remain within. But the issue concerns the relation of God to the world, and for Hegel the world is both nature as the stage and human history as the plays that are enacted upon and within it. Each begins with the claim that if the Universal is the highest, then Hegel is right, but Abraham is lost (1983, 54–5, 68–9, 82). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. God Who Acts. Thus, Hegel and Kierkegaard will present three-dimensional philosophies of immanence and transcendence, respectively. Special revelation, which is usually meant when reason and revelation are contrasted, is transcendent in two ways. 482–507. 2004. (p. 120) The third describes the movements by which this dialectical union of individual and society becomes aware of itself in art, religion, and philosophy. As a clan in which the members are ‘modifications of the same life’, such that ‘the whole does not live outside [each individual]; he himself is just the whole which the entire clan is’ (Hegel 1971a, 260); as the tree, which together with its branches makes up a single tree, and all the parts of which share the same nature (1971a, 261); and as ‘a nation of men related to one another by love’ (1971a, 278). Symbolism and Belief. Hegel’s theology takes shape in the years 1793–1800, prior to his first university appointment and first published essays. Christians worship the God who is at once transcendent and immanent without attempting to unravel this unfathomable mystery. To say that God is immanent is to say either that God is not transcendent (pantheism) or that God is not only transcendent (theism). 1980. Thus the idea of God as ‘wholly other’ (Otto 1923) and of an ‘infinite qualitative difference’ between God and human persons or society (Barth 1933; Kierkegaard 1980). As with ethical-religious transcendence, this account of epistemic Barth’s argument essentially reverses this picture (derived from Scripture) of God’s transcendence and immanence. Translated by T. M. Knox. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.Find this resource: Hegel, G. W. F. 1971b. He affirms that spirit is the ultimate reality, and it turns out that he means the human spirit in its social constructions, its cultural self-understanding, and its historical unfolding. Nor is it a polytheism of nations or cultures. Pages 117-130. But it is not abolished, only relativized (1983, 54, 56, 70–1). When we turn from Hegel’s ‘cosmological’ or ontological account of divine immanence to his ideas of epistemic immanence, we do not leave the former behind. There cannot be the world (of nature and human history) without God, but there can be God without the world. Hegel’s account goes like this. It is along these lines that Kierkegaard distinguishes autonomous philosophical reason from Christian faith as dependent on divine revelation, transmitted through the Bible and biblical preaching. This is immanence. Translated by Howard V. Hong and Edna H. Hong. Kierkegaard is drawing on the Pauline distinction between the wisdom of the world and the foolishness of the gospel, preached ‘in fear and trembling’ relative to that wisdom (1 Cor. The application to antiquity of the study of the evolving of the distinction between immanence and transcendence as triggered by intra- and interreligious encounter is a challenge. In the theistic context, a personal God is the ontological ground of the right and the good, whilst divine revelation is the highest norm for our knowledge of how we can and should best live our lives. 18). Transcendence and Immanence: Deciphering Their Relation through the Transcendentals in Aquinas and Kant Alexander J. However, on a critical note, despite this claim to radical immanence there remains something about the naming of God that will always invoke transcendence. Even societies that give lip service to such a duty, such as Kierkegaard’s Christendom or America’s pledge of ‘liberty and justice for all’, show that they do not really mean it. His autonomy does not consist in being able to discover the truth for himself. It continued to be influential throughout the nineteenth century and into the twentieth. It is primarily a twofold hierarchy expressed in several ways. Third, in Hegelian usage the inadequacy of religious thought and language as mere representations is more specifically theological than is captured by a reference to sense perception. They are in constant need of prophetic protests and reminders (Westphal 1987, chs. This fusion of transcendence and immanence is also alluded to by the name Shemini. 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