forget the larger context of the story itself. 10 God saved Joseph from all his afflictions, and gave him favor and wisdom before Pharaoh, king of Egypt. The following is from Gerald E. Aardsma, A New Approach to the Chronology of Biblical History from Abraham to Samuel, 2nd ed. Pharaoh also gave Joseph an Egyptian wife and an Egyptian name, the first element of which is “sef.” Manetho, an Egyptian historian who wrote the history of his country to Ptolemy I during the third century BC, mentions that Amenhotep III had a minister called Sef. The passages Genesis 12:10–20 narrate how Abraham moves to Egypt to escape a period of famine in Canaan. Joseph and Pharaoh—History and Archaeology Give a Big Thumbs Up! Yet, no one seems to think it strange that every known civilization has had some type of religious system. And while in Egypt, surrounded by paganism, God would not leave His people nor the Egyptians without access to His Truth. The sojourn in Egypt was in fulfillment of the prophecy given to Abraham when God made His covenant with him: 13Then He said to Abram:“Know certainly that your descendants will be strangers in a land that is not theirs, and will serve them, and they will afflict them four hundred years. After Joseph’s death, others copied his wise sayings and took credit for them, perhaps adding a bit of their own and changing things to suit them. the Hyksos) wore beards while Egyptians remained clean shaven (the stylized beards we see on statues are false).  This suggests that Joseph was appearing before an Egyptian Pharaoh, Joseph is rewarded by Pharaoh.  The specific rewards given, and in particular the gold chain, is indicative of an Egyptian reward ceremony of the period. At his death or disability, it follows that his son-in-law would be assigned his position, especially if that son-in-law were so highly regarded by the pharaoh as Joseph was. Inscriptions and coins found here show that people came here to be healed! But later, when Imhotep became established as the “god of healing”, it is the manner in which he healed that ties him directly to Joseph. Remember, it was Joseph’s dream about he and his brothers binding sheaves- their sheaves stood up and bowed to his- that was one of the causes of their great jealousy of him. The Wisdom of Imhotep Second, in order to conduct the necessary public works projects to prepare for the lean years, primarily the construction and maintenance of additional storage facilities given the amount of grain that would need to be stored.  A final consideration is the protection of that grain particularly during the lean years.  The story tells us that the famine impacted all of Egypt as well as Canaan and perhaps other countries as well.  Consider that if these events occurred during the Second Intermediate Period when upper and lower Egypt had separate governments, then only one part of the country (presumably Lower Egypt– the Nile delta region) would have been prepared.  A starving Upper Egypt would have then looked to capture the stored grain and war would have ensued.  Similarly, invasion from Canaan and elsewhere would have been likely in order to secure the available food.  Absent a strong central government, Egypt would not have been able to defend its grain stores.  Consequently, I believe that the context of the story makes a strong argument that the events described took place in a united Egypt and therefore during the Middle Kingdom period.  This in turn suggests a long sojourn. 41And it came to pass at the end of the four hundred and thirty years – on that very same day[1]– it came to pass that all the armies of the Lord went out from the land of Egypt. After Joseph is sold into slavery by his brothers, he overcomes this betrayal by trusting in God and interpreting dreams of prisoners and the Pharaoh in Egypt. Scripture speaks of “Potiphar, an officer of Pharaoh, captain of the guard, an Egyptian” (Genesis 39:1) who bought Joseph when he was sold into slavery. This inscription claims to be a copy of a document written by Djoser in the 18th year of his reign,- this copy being written over 1,000 years after the events it claims to be relating. Just as the story of the flood is found in almost every ancient culture but is twisted to fit their own purposes and gods, here we find the story of Joseph, only it is twisted to fit the needs of the priests of the various gods in substantiating their claims to certain land. years. Isaac was born twenty-five years later when Abraham was one hundred years old.  Isaac was sixty years old when Jacob was born(Genesis 25:26).  Isaac then lived an additional one hundred twenty years and died at the age of one hundred eighty(Genesis 35:28). Does this fit what we know of Joseph? Imhotep, the Architect of the 1st Pyramid He gave Joseph his ring and dressed him in robes of linen with a gold chain around his neck. This follows the Masoretic text, which is the version of the ancient Hebrew used as the basis for most Christian bibles.  However, the Septuagint, a translation from Hebrew to Greek from the third century BC states: Now the residence of the sons of Israel during which they dwelt in the land, Egypt, and in the land of Chanaan, was four hundred and thirty years. We believe the time of Abraham’s visit to Egypt was early in the 1st Dynasty. and it goes on to explain that their “sayings” were recited in his day. Rock in Horeb found near burnt mountain in Saudi Arabia. Charles, PhD; “Joseph in Egypt, Part IV”, Associates for Biblical Research, But one of the big mysteries for Egyptologists has been the tomb of Imhotep- they simply can’t find it although they know it should be somewhere in Sakkara. (verse 20). Evidence seems to indicate that after Imhotep, the trend among viziers became patterned after him, with these later viziers taking credit for Imhotep’s actual deeds and his writings- a practice which the Egyptians, among others, were notorious for. (Acts 7:6 – Stephen’s speech), And this I say that the law, which was four hundred and thirty years later, cannot annul the covenant that was confirmed before by God in Christ, that it should make the promise of no effect. And Joseph went out over all the land of Egypt. There are many details in the Joseph story that areconsistent with what we know about Egypt in the Middle Kingdom and SecondIntermediate Period (2000-1500 BC in the orthodox chronology). The Pharaohs became wealthy and powerful because of Joseph. 14And also the nation whom they serve I will judge; afterward they shall come outwith great possessions. After discovering Sarah's true relationship to Abraham, the pharaoh chooses not to take her as his own wife. Among the historical enigmas that the Bible serves up to us is the identity of Joseph’s Pharaoh, the one who made Joseph a ruler in Egypt. But in 1926, the question was settled once and for all- Imhotep was a real man. He releases her and Abraham and orders them to take their goods and to leave Egypt. In the new testament we find a couple of additional references to the length of time the children of Israel spent in Egypt. Pharaoh gave him the Egyptian name Zaphenath-paneah and found him a … 6 Then Joseph, all his brothers, and that entire generation died. They would pray to him, make offerings and then spend the night in this sanctuary, which was a sort of Lourdes of ancient Egypt. Each column is connected to the main wall by a perpendicular wall, forming small “rooms” between each column. In Egypt’s long list of “gods”, very few were ever once living among them. The Bible is quite clear on his high rank under the pharaoh: GEN 41:40 Thou shalt be over my house, and according unto thy word shall all my people be ruled: only in the throne will I be greater than thou. Archaeological records and climatological studies show that this was right in the middle of a lengthy famine that effected the entire Mediterranean. 8) “If you are a man of worth who sits in his master’s council, concentrate on excellence, your silence is better than chatter… gain respect through knowledge…”. 9) “The wise is known by his wisdom, the great by his good actions; his heart matches his tongue…”. The Bible records the fact that Joseph even taught the pharaoh’s “senators”. Since Asenath was old enough to marry Joseph at this time, it follows that her father was probably at least in his forties. This was unique because the son of the pharaoh was usually the vizier. Joseph comes to Egypt as a common man—actually a slave—and rises to become the right-hand man of the Pharaoh. In verse 24 she says, May … The final verse, from Galatians, the Septuagint, and Josephus have been used to date the beginning of the four hundred or four hundred and thirty years from the date of Abram’s arrival in Canaan at the age of seventy-five, from Abraham’s brief sojourn in Egypt, from the renewal of the covenant when Abraham was 99 years old, or from the birth of Isaac a year later.  This is known as the short sojourn: the time that the children of Israel were actually in Egypt is reduced by the time from the covenant or the birth of Isaac until the family of Jacob physically arrived in Egypt.  The long sojourn theory takes the literal interpretation of Exodus 12:40-41 and starts counting from Jacob’s arrival.  Thus, in order to understand the two main theories on where to date Joseph, we have to go back a little further, to Abraham and Isaac, and see what this means in terms of our timeline. 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